of the lens (a clear, crystalline structure inside the eye)
is called cataract. Persons with cataract see an object as
if looking through dense mist or cloud.
There are several causes for cataract development. Advanced
age is the most common of them all. Many persons between the
age of 50 to 60 years of age starts developing cataract. Some
other causes of cataract are injury to the eye, congenital
(hereditary disease, maternal disease like rubella in intra-uterine
period), metabolic causes(diabetes mellitus), radiation (x-ray,
gama ray) etc.
Almost all types of cataract can be treated satisfactorily
with cataract operation.
mellitus is a metabolic disease affecting people of almost
all age groups. Persons suffering from diabetes mellitus
for a long time may develop complications in the retina(
a thin transparent membrane in back of the eye). There may
be bleeding (within and in front of retina), fluid and lipid
deposition in retina. This is called Diabetic Retinopathy.
Retina is a very important structure for our vision, which;
if damaged may cause painless loss of vision. Diabetic retinopathy
if left untreated may lead to blindness.
If detected at an early stage, diabetic retinopathy can
be treated successfully and vision can be restored .There
are several methods for treatment of diabetic retinopathy.
They are laser photocoagulation, intravitreal -injection
(Avastin, Lucentis, Ozurdex etc.),vitrectomy operation .
Many a time these treatments may be combined for better
Proper control of blood sugar level, and associated hypertension
is very important for successful treatment of diabetic retinopathy.
is a disease where the nerve of the eye (optic nerve) is damaged.
It is primarily related to the intra ocular pressure (pressure
of the eye).
There are mainly two types glaucoma, (1)Primary open angle
glaucoma and (2)primary angle closure glaucoma. Primary open
angle glaucoma cause progressive and silent loss of vision.
In primary angle closure glaucoma severe pain occur in the
affected eye. If left untreated Glaucoma may lead to complete
Intraocular pressure should be lowered in glaucoma. Glaucoma
can be treated successfully with medications, laser(YAG laser)
or surgery if detected at an early stage by lowering intraocular
is a disease involving the macula (the central part of the
retina). Many people who are above the age of 70 to 80 years
suffer from this disease. In Age-related Macular degeneration
there is severe loss of central vision. People suffering from
it find reading, writing, cooking and other types of near
works very difficult to perform.
The disease is slowly progressive .There are two types of
this disease dry type and wet type. In the wet type there
is bleeding and exudation of lipid behind and inside the retina.
The wet type can be treated successfully with intravitreal
injections (Avastin, Lucentis etc.). The dry type can be arrested
somewhat with oral supplementation of anti-oxidants (vitamin).
Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO):
the main vein carrying blood outwards from the eye get blocked
due to any reason , sudden and complete loss of vision may
occur. In CRVO severe retinal bleeding can occur, and there
is fluid collection within the central part of the retina
(macular edema). This macular edema cause chronic loss of
vision following CRVO.
Three types of CRVO exists. Ischaemic, non-ischaemic and intermediate.
The non-ischaemic and intermediate variety carries a better
outcome. CRVO may be treated successfully with intra-ocular
injections , i.e. avastin, lucentis, ozurdex etc. Laser treatment
may also be needed in some cases.