Clouding of the lens (a clear, crystalline structure inside the eye) is called cataract. Persons with cataract see an object as if looking through dense mist or cloud.
There are several causes for cataract development. Advanced age is the most common of them all. Many persons between the age of 50 to 60 years of age starts developing cataract. Some other causes of cataract are injury to the eye, congenital (hereditary disease, maternal disease like rubella in intra-uterine period), metabolic causes(diabetes mellitus), radiation (x-ray, gama ray) etc.
Almost all types of cataract can be treated satisfactorily with cataract operation.

Diabetic Retinopathy:

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease affecting people of almost all age groups. Persons suffering from diabetes mellitus for a long time may develop complications in the retina( a thin transparent membrane in back of the eye). There may be bleeding (within and in front of retina), fluid and lipid deposition in retina. This is called Diabetic Retinopathy. Retina is a very important structure for our vision, which; if damaged may cause painless loss of vision. Diabetic retinopathy if left untreated may lead to blindness.
If detected at an early stage, diabetic retinopathy can be treated successfully and vision can be restored .There are several methods for treatment of diabetic retinopathy. They are laser photocoagulation, intravitreal -injection (Avastin, Lucentis, Ozurdex etc.),vitrectomy operation . Many a time these treatments may be combined for better results.

Proper control of blood sugar level, and associated hypertension is very important for successful treatment of diabetic retinopathy.

Glaucoma is a disease where the nerve of the eye (optic nerve) is damaged. It is primarily related to the intra ocular pressure (pressure of the eye).

There are mainly two types glaucoma, (1)Primary open angle glaucoma and (2)primary angle closure glaucoma. Primary open angle glaucoma cause progressive and silent loss of vision. In primary angle closure glaucoma severe pain occur in the affected eye. If left untreated Glaucoma may lead to complete blindness.

Intraocular pressure should be lowered in glaucoma. Glaucoma can be treated successfully with medications, laser(YAG laser) or surgery if detected at an early stage by lowering intraocular pressure.
Age-related Macular degeneration:
It is a disease involving the macula (the central part of the retina). Many people who are above the age of 70 to 80 years suffer from this disease. In Age-related Macular degeneration there is severe loss of central vision. People suffering from it find reading, writing, cooking and other types of near works very difficult to perform.

The disease is slowly progressive .There are two types of this disease dry type and wet type. In the wet type there is bleeding and exudation of lipid behind and inside the retina. The wet type can be treated successfully with intravitreal injections (Avastin, Lucentis etc.). The dry type can be arrested somewhat with oral supplementation of anti-oxidants (vitamin).
Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO):
When the main vein carrying blood outwards from the eye get blocked due to any reason , sudden and complete loss of vision may occur. In CRVO severe retinal bleeding can occur, and there is fluid collection within the central part of the retina (macular edema). This macular edema cause chronic loss of vision following CRVO.

Three types of CRVO exists. Ischaemic, non-ischaemic and intermediate. The non-ischaemic and intermediate variety carries a better outcome. CRVO may be treated successfully with intra-ocular injections , i.e. avastin, lucentis, ozurdex etc. Laser treatment may also be needed in some cases.



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